Friday, June 14, 2013

Basque official report on the victims during the guerrilla war

Fascist mercenaries at the Montejurra massacre
The semi-autonomous Western Basque Government has issued a report[es] that attempts to quantify the numbers and typology of the victims in the period of the guerrilla war from 1960 to 2013. 

Actually ETA was only active in armed form from 1968 and officially declared the end to armed struggle in 2011. Guerrilla war and state repression should be quantified, in my understanding since 1936, when the fascist coup ignited the fire of popular armed resistance, which existed since then in many forms (grouped in the catch-all term maquis, inherited from the French Resistance), some of them with clear independentist undertones. 

The report also seems somewhat biased in favor of certain kind of victims, not counting, for example, deaths in prison or those killed or mutilated in car accidents when traveling to far away prisons to visit their relatives or friends. People in prison for political reasons, with or without sentence, should be accounted and in most cases are not. The report mentions once and again the various associations of "victims of terrorism" but never any association against torture, for the rights of prisoners, etc. Those killed in police operations against armed groups, such as the Pasaia Massacre, don't seem to be accounted for either. It is not clear if the reports of police violence include those by French agents (surely not).

Fascist PM Carrero Blanco was killed by ETA(m)
In any case, the report accounts for the following figures for the 1960-1978 period:
  • 136 killed by ETA, Autonomous Anti-Capitalist Commandos (CCAA) and other anti-system groups. In detail:
    • ETA (prior to schism): 18
    • ETA (militar): 89
    • ETA (political-militar): 9 (2 in kidnappings)
    • CCAA: 4
    • Iberian Directorate for Liberation (DRIL): 1
    • Others: 2
    • Not sufficiently clear: 13 (2 in kidnappings).
  • 87 killed by the Spanish police (74), death squads (13) or death penalty. In detail:
    • Police abuses, confusion and other causes: 23
    • Police violence in demonstrations: 22
    • In road controls: 19
    • In police custody: 5
    • By out-of-service agents: 5
    • By the Basque-Spanish Battalion (BVE): 3
    • By the Apostolic Anti-Communist Alliance (Triple A): 2
    • By fascist violence against demonstrators: 3
    • By execution after military trial: 2 (the famous Txiki and Otaegi, 10 others were sentenced to death but never actually killed).
  • Other anti-system violence:
    • 236 seriously injured in attacks (230 by ETA in its various forms).
    • 14 people kidnapped and later released (3 after being shot to the knee).
    • 8 attacks against media.
    • An undetermined number of police agents injured in demonstrations.
    • Some 3600 major attacks (by organized groups) in this and the following period.
    • Some 4500 minor attacks (in the so called "street fight") in this and the following period.
  • Other state violence:
    • 422 injured by police violence in demonstrations. 
    • 355 death squad arson attacks and death threats.
    • 238 subject to military trials.
    • 103 terror attacks by death squads (not including kidnappings).
    • 32 journalist brought to trial or otherwise jailed.
    • 22 injured in road controls.
    • 22 death squad attacks against demonstrations.
    • 13 hospitalized after arrest.
    • 11 death squad attacks against media.
    • 9 kidnappings with violence and torture by death squads.
    • 6 injured by out-of-service police agents.
    • An undetermined number of arbitrary arrests, preventive prison, etc.
    • An undetermined number of media closures, censorship and prohibitions.
    • Not researched but mentioned: abuses and torture against prisoners.
  • Unclear: 4 people missing.

Not accounted for? (Pasaia 1984)
In the 1979-2013 period:
  • 703 killed by anti-system groups:
    • In attacks by ETA(m): 644 
    • In attacks by the CCAA: 38
    • In attacks by ETA(pm): 12
    • In attacks by Iparretarrak (IK): 3
    • In attacks by Iraultza: 1 (but a member of Iraultza, which never targeted people).
    • In kidnappings by ETA(m): 8
    • In kidnappings by ETA(pm): 2
    • In kidnappings by the CCAA: 2
    • In kidnappings by ETA-VIII: 1
    • In "street fight" actions: 3
    • Itsasondo man who got tired of police persecution and killed two with a hunting rifle (later run away and joined ETA): 2. 
    • Not clarified: 314 (figure by FVT, highly suspect, not added to total).
  • Some 126 killed by the state and satellite groups:
    • In attacks by the Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups (GAL): 24
    • By police (abuse, confusion or other causes): 18
    • In attacks by the Basque-Spanish Battalion (BVE): 14
    • In police custody: 12
    • By out-of-service police agents: 12
    • In road controls: 11
    • By police violence in demonstrations: 10
    • In attacks by the Spanish Anti-Terrorist Groups (GAE): 7
    • In attacks by the Triple A: 3
    • By death squad attacks against demonstrations: 3
    • In prison: 2 (only?)
    • Women raped and killed by the BVE: 2
    • Other death squad kidnappings with murder: 2
    • Missing people whose corpses were found: 2
    • In attacks by "Antiterrorismo ETA" (ATE): 1
    • Deaths by death squads never clarified: at least 3. Most cases were never investigated properly anyhow.
  • Other anti-system violence:
    • Injured in attacks: figures vary: from 2068 to 16,000.
    • Kidnapped and released: 
      • ETA(pm): 24 (11 after being shot to the knee)
      • ETA(m): 17
      • ETA-VIII: 5
      • ETA (prior to schism): 3
      • CCAA: 3
      • ETA-VII: 1
      • Not clarified: 8 (these may be mafia violence in fact)
    • Attacks against media: 32
    • Major arson attacks (by armed groups): some 3600 (both periods)
    • Minor arson attacks (by the so-called "street violence"): some 4500 (both periods)
  • Other state violence:
    • Torture: maybe as many as 10,000 victims, some 5500 public denounces.
      • Hospitalized after police arrest: 124
      • Only 62 agents (who tortured 31 victims) were declared guilty of tortures, 27 of them were later pardoned by the government.
    • Injured in road controls: 30
    • Injured by police (confusion, abuses and other causes): 39
    • Injured by out-of-service police agents: 13
    • Injured by police in demonstrations: 222 (only?)
    • Undue closure of media: 2 (Egin newspaper and radio, Egunkaria)
    • Violations of human rights in prison: not researched (lots!)
    • Injured in death squad attacks: 232
    • Injured by death squads in demonstrations: 10
    • Women raped by death squads: 13
    • Kidnappings with intimidation and torture: 49
    • Arson attacks and death threats by death squads: 633 (10 against media)
  • Not clarified: 2 missing people and another unspecified case.

While I do not necessarily subscribe the data produced in this report (too many blanks and question marks), it is clear that it serves as partial reference for historians and political debate.

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